Chong Chen, Meng Zhang, Xiaocui Ma, Qingwei Meng, Kunyang Zhuang
Heat stress causes dysfunction of the carbon-assimilation metabolism. As a member of Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle, the chloroplast triose phosphate isomerases (TPI) catalyse the interconversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome contains two individual SlTPI genes, Solyc10g054870 and Solyc01g111120, which encode the chloroplast-located proteins SlTPI1 and SlTPI2, respectively. The tpi1 and tpi2 single mutants had no visible phenotypes, but the leaves of their double mutant lines tpi1tpi2 had obviously reduced TPI activity and displayed chlorotic variegation, dysplasic chloroplasts and lower carbon-assimilation efficiency. In addition to altering carbon metabolism, proteomic data showed that the loss of both SlTPI1 and SlTPI2 severely affected photosystem proteins, reducing photosynthetic capacity. None of these phenotypes was evident in the tpi1 or tpi2 single mutants, suggesting that SlTPI1 and SlTPI2 are functionally redundant. However, the two proteins differed in their responses to heat stress; the protein encoded by the heat-induced SlTPI2 showed a higher level of thermotolerance than that encoded by the heat-suppressed SlTPI1. Notably, heat-induced transcription factors, SlWRKY21 and SlHSFA2/7, which negatively regulated SlTPI1 expression and positively regulated SlTPI2 expression, respectively. Our findings thus reveal that SlTPI1 and SlTPI2 have different thermostabilities and expression patterns in response to heat stress, which have the potential to be applied in thermotolerance strategies in crops.
Paper Linkage https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.14212